Scleroderma Treatment With Autologous Transplant (STAT) Study

Therapuetic Areas:Dermatology / Plastic Surgery
Age Range:Any - 70
Start Date:September 15, 2011

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A Phase II Multi-center Study of High-Dose Cyclophosphamide and Antithymocyte Globulin Followed by Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation With Post Transplant Maintenance for the Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis

This phase II trial studies how well giving cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin
together followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) and mycophenolate mofetil
works in treating patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Stem cells are collected from the
patient's blood and stored prior to treatment. To store the stem cells patients are given
colony-stimulating factors, such as filgrastim (G-CSF) or chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) to
help stem cells move from the bone marrow to the blood so they can be collected and stored.
After storage, patients are then given high-dose chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide, and
immunosuppression with anti-thymocyte globulin to suppress the immune system to prepare for
the transplant. The stem cells are then returned to the patient to replace the blood-forming
cells that were destroyed by the chemotherapy and immunosuppression. After the stem cells
have "engrafted" and have matured enough to support the immune system at approximately 2-3
months, patients are given a medication called mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or Myfortic. This
medication is given to prevent worsening or reactivation of SSc and is referred to as
maintenance therapy.


I. To evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of high-dose immunosuppressive therapy
(HDIT) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) (without cluster of
differentiation [CD]34-selection) and maintenance therapy with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in
systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients by evaluating the effects on event-free survival (EFS) at
5 years post-transplant.


I. To evaluate safety of HDIT followed by autologous HCT as determined by regimen-related
toxicities, infectious complications, treatment-related mortality, overall total mortality,
and time to engraftment.

II. To evaluate treatment effect on disease activation/progression.

III. To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using Short Form 36 (SF-36), the St.
George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the modified scleroderma health assessment
questionnaire (SHAQ), and PROMIS version (v) 1.0 measures.

IV. To assess work productivity (Work Productivity Survey) and health care utilization (using
University of California San-Diego [UCSD] healthcare utilization).


STEM CELL MOBILIZATION AND PREPARATION: Patients receive filgrastim subcutaneously (SC) on
mobilization days 1-4 followed by apheresis until a target dose of CD34+ cells >= 2.5 x
10^6/kg are collected. Patients difficult to mobilize with filgrastim alone receive
cyclophosphamide intravenously (IV) or *plerixafor subcutaneously (SC) on mobilization days
1-2 and filgrastim SC on mobilization days 5-7.

HDIT CONDITIONING: Patients receive high-dose cyclophosphamide IV over 1-2 hours on days -5
to -2 and anti-thymocyte globulin IV on days -5, -3, -1, 1, 3, and 5.

TRANSPLANTATION: Patients undergo autologous PBSCT on day 0.

MAINTENANCE THERAPY: Beginning 2-3 months after transplant, patients receive mycophenolate
mofetil orally (PO) twice daily (BID) for 2 years.

NOTE: *Plerixafor is an alternative to the cyclophosphamide based mobilization.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed at 1 month, weeks 12 and 26, and
then annually for 5 years.

Inclusion Criteria:

- Patients with SSc as defined by the American College of Rheumatology with diffuse
cutaneous disease (except Group 5) at risk of disease progression

- Patients must have failed a prior >= 4-mponth course of either MMF/Myfortic or
cyclophosphamide before being eligible for the study (determined at >= 1 week before
start of mobilization); "failure" is defined as evidence of disease progression or
absence of improvement; the response prior to MMF of cyclophosphamide will be assessed
by the participating site study rheumatologist

- Patients must meet eligibility in at least 1 of the following 6 groups:

- GROUP 1:

- Patients must have 1) both a and b below; and 2) either c, or d

- a) Diffuse cutaneous scleroderma as defined by skin thickening proximal to
the elbows and knees and/or involving the torso in addition to distal
extremity involvement; a skin score will be obtained but not used to
determine eligibility

- b) Duration of systemic sclerosis =< 7 years from the onset of first
non-Raynaud's symptom; for those patients with disease activity between 5-7
years from the onset of first non-Raynaud's symptom, recent progression or
activity of disease must be documented

- c) Presence of SSc-related pulmonary disease with forced vital capacity
(FVC) < 80% or hemoglobin-adjusted diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide
(DLCO) < 70% of predicted AND evidence of alveolitis or SSc-related
interstitial lung disease by high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT)
scan and/or by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (interstitial lung disease may
be nonspecific interstitial pneumonia [NSIP] or usual interstitial pneumonia
[UIP]; a bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] should be done to confirm the findings
of alveolitis only if the high resolution CT scan [HRCT] fails to show
findings typically associated with systemic sclerosis changes [ground glass
NSIP, UIP, SSc related interstitial lung disease]); alveolitis by BAL cell
count will be defined based on a BAL cell differential count (> 3%
neutrophils and/or > 2% eosinophils) from any lavaged lobe

- d) History of SSc-related renal disease that may not be active at the time
of screening; stable serum creatinine must be documented for a minimum of 3
months post-renal crisis at the time of the baseline visit; history of
scleroderma hypertensive renal crisis is included in this criterion and is
defined as follows:

- History of new-onset hypertension based on any of the following
(measurements must be repeated and confirmed at least 2 hours apart
within 3 days of first event-associated observation, with a change from

- Systolic blood pressure (SBP) >= 140 mmHg

- Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >= 90 mmHg

- Rise in SBP >= 30 mmHg compared to baseline

- Rise in DBP >= 20 mmHg compared to baseline

- AND one of the following 5 laboratory criteria:

- Increase of >= 50 % above baseline in serum creatinine

- Proteinuria: >= 2+ by dipstick confirmed by
protein:creatinine ratio > 2.5

- Hematuria: >= 2+ by dipstick or > 10 red blood cell
(RBC)s/hematopoietic-promoting factor (HPF) (without

- Thrombocytopenia: < 100,000 platelets/mm^3

- Hemolysis: by blood smear or increased reticulocyte count

- The above definition of SSc hypertensive renal crisis is independent of
whether concomitant anti-hypertensive medications are used

- Subjects who present with solely skin and renal disease in the absence
of other organ involvement, except classic SSc renal crisis as
described above and including non-hypertensive renal crisis, must see a
nephrologist to confirm that their renal disease is secondary to only

- Note: Subjects may be re-screened if they fail to meet inclusion
criteria on initial evaluation

- GROUP 2:

- Progressive pulmonary disease as defined by a decrease in the FVC or
DLCO-adjusted by 10 or 15 percent or greater, respectively, from a prior FVC or
DLCO-adjusted in the previous 18-month period

- Patients will have diffuse cutaneous disease and may have both FVC and DLCOcorr
>= 70% at screening for the study

- Patients must also have evidence of alveolitis as defined by abnormal chest
computed tomography (CT) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)

- GROUP 3: Diffuse scleroderma with disease duration =< 2 years since development of
first sign of skin thickening plus modified Rodnan skin score >= 25 plus either

- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) > 25 mm/1st hour and/or hemoglobin (Hb) < 11
g/dL, not explained by causes other than active scleroderma

- Lung involvement (either FVC or DLCO < 80% and evidence of interstitial lung
disease by CT scan or alveolitis by BAL)

- GROUP 4: Diffuse scleroderma with disease duration =< 2 years and skin score >= 30

- GROUP 5:

- Limited cutaneous scleroderma and SSc-related pulmonary disease with FVC < 80% or
hemoglobin-adjusted DLCO < 70% of predicted

- AND evidence of alveolitis/interstitial lung disease by high-resolution chest CT
scan and/or by BAL (interstitial lung disease may be nonspecific interstitial
pneumonia [NSIP] or usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP]; A bronchoalveolar lavage
[BAL] should be done to confirm the findings of alveolitis only if the high
resolution CT scan [HRCT] fails to show findings typically associated with
systemic sclerosis changes [ground glass, NSIP, UIP, SSc related interstitial
lung disease])

- Alveolitis by BAL cell count will be defined based on a BAL cell differential
count (> 3% neutrophils and/or > 2% eosinophils) from any lavaged lobe

- GROUP 6: Progressive gastrointestinal disease as defined by all of the following

- Disease duration of scleroderma =< 2 years.

- Documented severe malabsorption syndrome requiring nutritional support; severe
malabsorption syndrome is > 10% weight loss and on total parenteral nutrition
(TPN) or enteral feedings

- High score on distention/ bloating scale (>= 1.60 out of 3.00) on
gastrointestinal (GI) questionnaire

Exclusion Criteria:

- Subjects with pulmonary, cardiac, hepatic, or renal impairment that would limit their
ability to receive cytoreductive therapy and compromise their survival; this includes,
but is not restricted to, subjects with any of the following:

- Pulmonary dysfunction defined as:

- Severe pulmonary dysfunction with (1) a hemoglobin corrected DLCO < 40% of
predicted at the Baseline Screening visit, or (3) FVC < 45% of predicted Baseline
Screening visit, or

- Partial pressure (pO2) < 70 mmHg or pCO2 >= 45 mmHg without supplemental oxygen,

- O2 saturation < 92% at rest without supplemental oxygen as measured by forehead
pulse oximeter

- Significant pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) defined as:

- Peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 50 mmHg by resting echocardiogram will
require right heart catheterization; if pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is not
evaluable on echocardiogram due to lack of a Tricuspid regurgitant jet, then
normal anatomy and function as evidenced by normal right atrium and ventricle
size, shape and wall thickness and septum shape must be documented to rule-out
PAH; otherwise, right heart catheterization is indicated; prior history of PAH
but controlled with medications will not exclude patients from the protocol; PAH
is considered controlled with medications if peak systolic pulmonary artery
pressure is < 45 mmHg or mean pulmonary artery pressure by right heart
catheterization is < 30 mmHg at rest

- Mean pulmonary artery pressure by right heart catheterization exceeding 30 mmHg
at rest; if mean PAP is elevated and pulmonary vascular resistance and
transpulmonary gradient are normal then the patient is eligible for the protocol

- New York Heart Association (NYHA)/World Health Organization Class III or IV

- Cardiac: Uncontrolled clinically significant arrhythmias; clinical evidence of
significant congestive heart failure (CHF) (NYHA Class III or IV); left ventricular
ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50% by echocardiogram

- History/presence of arrhythmia (even controlled) on chemical anti-arrhythmic(s) must
have cardiac consult to ensure the subject could safely proceed with protocol

- Significant renal pathology defined as:

- Estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 40 mL/min (using Cockcroft-Gault formula
based on actual body weight) and serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL; OR

- Active, untreated SSc renal crisis at the time of enrollment; presence of
nephrotic range proteinuria (defined as >= 3.5 gms/24 hours, or
protein:creatinine ratio >= 3.5), active urinary sediment, urinary RBCs > 25 per
HPF, or red cell casts require further investigation by a nephrologist to rule
out glomerulonephritis, overlap syndromes, or other causes of renal disease in
all subjects; subjects with glomerulonephritis or overlap syndromes will be

- Hepatic: Active hepatitis (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase
[AST], or bilirubin > 2 times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) or evidence of moderate
to severe periportal fibrosis by liver biopsy

- Active or clinically significant Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia (GAVE, "watermelon

- Unwilling or unable to discontinue disallowed disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs
(DMARDs) for treatment of SSc prior to mobilization

- History or presence of a 2nd autoimmune disease requiring immunosuppressive therapy
that has substantial risk of immunosuppressive treatment beyond transplant with the
following exceptions:

- History and/or presence of Sjogren's Syndrome is allowed

- Stable myositis (A history of myositis that is clinically stable as defined by
lack of progressive proximal muscle weakness and a stable or decreasing creatine
phosphokinase [CPK] < 3 x ULN) is allowed

- The presence of anti-double stranded (ds)-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) without
clinical systemic lupus erythematosus in a patient with a diagnosis of otherwise
"pure" SSc is allowed

- Concomitant rheumatoid arthritis without extra-articular disease characteristic
of rheumatoid arthritis is allowed

- Active uncontrolled infection that would be a contraindication to safe use of
high-dose therapy

- Positive study for Hepatitis B surface antigen or Hepatitis B or C confirmed by
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

- Positive serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1500 cells/uL

- Platelets < 100,000 cells/uL

- Hematocrit < 27%

- Hemoglobin < 9.0 g/dL

- Malignancy within the 2 years prior to entry in study, excluding adequately treated
squamous cell skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and carcinoma in situ; treatment must
have been completed (with the exception of hormonal therapy for breast cancer) with
cure/remission status verified for at least 2 years prior to entry in this study

- Presence of other comorbid illnesses with an estimated median life expectancy < 5

- Evidence of myelodysplasia (MDS); subjects with history of receiving any prior
chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant disease, history of
greater than 2 months total prior cyclophosphamide for any condition (regardless of
dose and route) and/or subjects presenting with abnormal peripheral blood counts
require unilateral bone marrow aspiration for pathology, flow cytometry, cytogenetics,
and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) MDS panel (per institutional profile) to
rule out MDS

- Pregnancy

- Inability to give voluntary informed consent

- Unwilling to use contraceptive methods for at least 15 months after starting treatment

- History of smoking tobacco (or other related/herbal products) in the prior 3 months

- History of prior autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation
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