Medication Management Among Individuals With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Therapuetic Areas:Neurology
Age Range:18 - 99
Start Date:November 11, 2016
End Date:December 2018

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This is a pilot study to develop a reinforcement learning (RL)-adaptive visual and
interactive support application (hereafter RL-adaptive support) to help young adults with
spina bifida or cerebral palsy become more independent with medication management.
Individuals with disabilities who are empowered to manage several aspects of their lives can
ultimately be better integrated into and contribute more to society.

In this study, an application will be iteratively developed and tested using RL-adaptive
support for young adults with disabilities, with the goal to promote the transition to
independent self-medication administration among young adults with cerebral palsy and spina

Stochastic mathematical models of how individuals with varying levels of executive function
and psychomotor skills will respond to the interventions (i.e. the different types and
formats of messages) of the RL-adaptive support will be developed.

Up to 6 dyads of individuals with disabilities and their caregivers were intended to be
recruited to collaborate in defining the features and content of the RL-adaptive support. The
investigators recruited 3 dyads.

The steps in developing the RL-adaptive support include having the dyads use for
approximately 6 weeks each:

1. young adult uses an electronic medication pillbox that sends its pillbox openings within
one hour of opening to the research team,

2. young adult uses the electronic medication pillbox + both use a commercially available
medication reminder app + caregiver uses a pillbox opening notification app, and

3. young adult uses the electronic medication pillbox + the RL-adaptive support including
push notifications in the form of text messages + caregiver uses the pillbox opening
notification app

The goal was to reduce the number of caregiver prompts necessary for the medication pillbox
to be opened. Using these data, the number and type of prompts necessary for the caregiver to
open the electronic pillbox can be determined. In case the young adult does not open the
electronic pillbox within two hours, the caregiver will be notified so that pills are not
missed. In each step, the useful features of the system will be determined via qualitative
and quantitative feedback with specific suggestions about how to improve this supportive

Inclusion Criteria:

For young adult:

- Diagnosed with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and previously enrolled in HUM00081812

- Age 18-26 years-old

- Having mild-moderate cognition based on consultation with the investigators and the
results of the following tests: iBRIEF Metacognition index T-Score, CVLT List A Free
Recall T Score, ReyO Organization T-Score, PPVT Scaled Score, Tower Scaled Score, TRAQ
question 4: Do participants take medications correctly and on their own?

- Having adequate physical dexterity (to be able to open a pill box and use an

- Taking two or more routine oral medicines in pill formulation

- Being able to take capsules or tablets

- Still living at home with their parent/legal guardian

- Have Wi-Fi/Internet access at home

For parent/caregiver:

- Being the parent/legal guardian of a person with aforementioned disability

- Owning a cell phone

- Have Wi-Fi/Internet access at home

Exclusion Criteria:

• Those who do not fulfill the inclusion criteria will be excluded from the study
We found this trial at
500 S State St
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109
(734) 764-1817
Phone: 734-763-5150
University of Michigan The University of Michigan was founded in 1817 as one of the...
Ann Arbor, MI
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