Atezolizumab in Combination With Entinostat and Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Conditions:Cancer, Cancer, Cancer, Cancer
Therapuetic Areas:Oncology
Age Range:18 - Any
Start Date:May 25, 2017
End Date:January 31, 2021
Contact:Sheila Dropcho, RN

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A Phase I/II Study to Evaluate the Safety, Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy of Atezolizumab in Combination With Entinostat and Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

This study will assess the immunomodulatory activity of entinostat in patients with advanced
renal cell carcinoma receiving the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab. The overall hypothesis is
that entinostat will increase the immune response and anti-tumor effect induced by the PD-L1
inhibition by suppressing Treg function. We have chosen renal cell carcinoma that has been
reported to respond to PD1/PD-L 1 inhibition. The schedule of entinostat is based on our
previous experience with this agent. Based on our working hypothesis that low dose HDAC
inhibitors will have a suppressive function on Tregs but not on T effector cells, the
starting dose of entinostat will be 1 mg and will be escalated up to 5 mg rather than the 10
mg dose. The combination also with bevacizumab will provide an effective VEGF inhibition that
may potentiate the immune response and anti-tumor effect induced by atezolizumab. The
proposed dose and schedule for atezolizumab and bevacizumab has been shown to be well
tolerated in prior Phase/I/II studies and is currently tested in a Phase III randomized study
in patients with renal cell carcinoma with sunitinib as a control arm. The highest proposed
dose level for entinostat (5 mg) represents 50% of the recommended Phase II dose for this
compound as a single agent.

This is a Phase l/II, open-label, safety, pharmacodynamics and efficacy study of atezolizumab
in combination with entinostat and bevacizumab in patients with advanced renal cell
carcinoma. This clinical study will be composed of a Dose Finding Phase (Phase I) and a
two-stage Dose Expansion Phase (Phase II) portion.

In Phase 1, patients will be treated with oral entinostat every 7 days, with bevacizumab at
the fixed dose of 15 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks and with atezolizumab at the fixed dose of 1200
mg IV every 3 weeks. Each cycle length is 21 days. Three dose levels of entinostat will be
tested in 3-patient cohorts according to the 3 + 3 standard design (level 1 = 1 mg, level 2 =
3 mg and level 3 = 5 mg). For the Dose Finding Phase, the starting dose level of entinostat
will be 1 mg PO every 7 days. The first dose level will have a minimum of 3 patients treated
(unless the first 2 patients experience DLT(s) before the 3rd patient is enrolled. DLTs
attributable to entinostat and/or bevacizumab and/or atezolizumab will be evaluated during
the first 21 days of the combination treatment.

If DLTs occur in 1 patient treated at the starting dose level, a minimum of 3 additional
patients will be treated at this dose level. If DLTs occur in more than 1 patient in the
first 6 patients, the study will be terminated. If a DLT occurs in 1/6 patient, dose level 1
will be considered the Recommended Phase II Dose (RP2D). If no DLTs occur at the starting
dose level 1, 3 additional patients will be treated at the next dose level (level 2). If no
DLTs occur at the dose level 2, 3 additional patients will be treated at the next dose level
(level 3). If no DLTs occur at dose level 3, this dose level will be recommended for the
Phase II portion of the study. Patients who experience grade ≥ 3 toxicity and recover to ≤
grade 1 (or to pretreatment baseline level toxicity) may continue treatment at the next lower
level. The Phase II dose will be RP2D of entinostat (i.e., the highest tested dose that is
declared safe and tolerable by the Investigators and Sponsor).

Once the RP2D is identified, the Phase II portion (Simon's two stage design) will be opened.
During Phase II, Cohort A will have a Run-In period with entinostat for one cycle followed by
atezolizumab and bevacizumab for the second cycle, and then the Combination Phase. The reason
for the Run-In period during Cohort A is to obtain data on the immunomodulatory effects of
entinostat separately from bevacizumab and atezolizumab. The run-in period will be optional
for patients who are rapidly progressing or if it is in the patient's best interest
clinically as determined by the treating physician's discretion. In Stage I, 32 patients with
prior treatments will be enrolled in two Phase II cohorts: 18 treatment naïve (anti-PD1
naïve) patients (Cohort A), and 14 anti-PD1 resistant (defined as patients who have been on
PD1 inhibitors for at least 3 months and have progressed by either clinical or radiographic
assessment) patients (Cohort B). If ≥ 5 responses are observed in Cohort A, Stage II will be
conducted with 15 additional patients.

Cohort B is a pilot arm which aims to test atezolizumab in anti-PD1 resistant patients. If
there is no response to atezolizumab, then the RP2D dose of entinostat will be added to the
standard dose of atezolizumab. If there is a response to atezolizumab, patients will continue
to be treated with atezolizumab alone.

The RP2D is the dose of entinostat, atezolizumab, and bevacizumab in combination chosen for
further clinical development. Further experience in Phase II may result in a RP2D dose lower
than the maximum tolerated dose.


1. Primary Phase I: To assess the safety and tolerability of atezolizumab in combination
with entinostat and bevacizumab in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

2. Primary Phase II: To assess the objective response rate of atezolizumab in combination
with entinostat and bevacizumab in anti-PD 1 naïve patients and atezolizumab in
combination with entinostat in anti-PD 1 resistant patients with advanced renal cell

3. Secondary: To assess the objective response rate (Phase I only), progression-free
survival and overall survival.

4. Correlative: To characterize PD-L1/2, immune cell subsets, and miRs in tumor and/or
blood in correlation with response.

Inclusion Criteria:

Patients must meet the following criteria for study entry:

- Signed Informed Consent Form (ICF)

- Ability and willingness to comply with the requirements of the study protocol

- Age ≥ 18 years

- Metastatic renal cell carcinoma

- During Phase I - All prior treatments or none are allowed

- During Phase II/Cohort A - No prior treatments are allowed

- During Phase II/Cohort B - Must have at least one prior treatment with a PD1

- Life expectancy of at least 6 months

- Adequate hematologic and end organ function, defined by the following laboratory
results obtained within 14 days prior to the first study treatment (Cycle 1, Day 1):

- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1500 cells/microL

- White blood cell (WBC) counts > 2500/microL

- Lymphocyte count ≥ 300/microL

- Platelet count ≥ 100,000/microL; for patients with hematologic malignancies,
platelet count ≥ 75,000/microL

- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL

- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) with the following exception:

Patients with known Gilbert disease who have serum bilirubin level ≤ 3 x ULN may be

Direct bilirubin ≤ ULN for patients with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 x ULN

- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤ 2.5 x ULN with the
following exception: Patients with liver involvement: AST and/or ALT ≤ 5 x ULN

- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 2.0 x ULN with the following exception: Patients with
documented liver involvement or bone metastases: ALP ≤ 5 x ULN

- Serum creatinine ≤ 1.25 x ULN or creatinine clearance ≥ 60 mL/min on the basis of the
Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate estimation:

(140 - age) x (weight in kg) x (0.85 if female) / 72 x (serum creatinine in mg/dL)

- Urine dipstick for proteinuria < 2+ or 24-hour urine protein < 1 g of protein is

- International Normalized Ratio (INR) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)
≤ 1.5 x ULN This applies only to patients who do not receive therapeutic
anticoagulation; patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation (such as
low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin) should be on a stable dose.

- Measurable disease per RECIST v1.1 for patients with solid malignancies and
evaluable disease as assessed by bone scan and/or PET scan

- If a female of childbearing potential, negative serum blood pregnancy test during
screening and a negative urine pregnancy test ≤ 3 days prior to receiving the
first dose of study drug. If the screening serum test is done ≤ 3 days prior to
receiving the first dose of study drug, a urine test is not required.

- Non-childbearing potential is defined as (by other than medical reasons):

- 45 years of age and has not had menses for > 2 years Amenorrheic for < 2 years
without a hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy and a follicle-stimulating hormone
value in the postmenopausal range upon pre-study (screening) evaluation Post
hysterectomy, oophorectomy or tubal ligation. Documented hysterectomy or
oophorectomy must be confirmed with medical records of the actual procedure or
confirmed by an ultrasound. Tubal ligation must be confirmed with medical records
of the actual procedure.

- For female patients of childbearing potential and male patients with
partners of childbearing potential, agreement (by patient and/or partner) to
use two forms of highly effective contraception (i.e., one that results in a
low failure rate [< 1% per year] when used consistently and correctly) and
to continue its use for 150 days after the last dose of all study drugs
(atezolizumab, entinostat, and bevacizumab).

- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status of 0 or 1

Exclusion Criteria Patients who meet any of the following criteria will be excluded from
study entry.

General Exclusion Criteria:

- Any approved anti-cancer therapy, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or
radiotherapy, ≤ 3 weeks prior to first dose of study drug; however, the following are

- Hormone-replacement therapy or oral contraceptives

- Herbal therapy > 1 week prior to Cycle 1, Day 1 (herbal therapy intended as
anti-cancer therapy must be discontinued at least 1 week prior to Cycle 1, Day 1)

- Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases > 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Currently participating and receiving study therapy or has participated in a study of
an investigational agent and received study therapy or used an investigational device
≤ 4 weeks of the first dose of study drug.

- AEs from prior anti-cancer therapy that have not resolved to Grade ≤ 1 except for
alopecia and neuropathy

- Any contraindication to oral agents or significant nausea and vomiting, malabsorption,
or significant small bowel resection that, in the opinion of the investigator, would
preclude adequate absorption.

- Bisphosphonate therapy for symptomatic hypercalcemia

- Use of bisphosphonate therapy for other reasons (e.g., bone metastasis or
osteoporosis) is allowed.

- Known clinically significant liver disease, including active viral, alcoholic, or
other hepatitis; cirrhosis; fatty liver; and inherited liver disease

- Patients with acute leukemias, accelerated/blast phase chronic myelogenous leukemia,
chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Burkitt lymphoma, plasma cell leukemia, or non-secretory

- Known primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancy or symptomatic CNS metastases -
Patients with asymptomatic untreated CNS disease may be enrolled, provided all of the
following criteria are met: Evaluable or measurable disease outside the CNS No
metastases to brain stem, midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, or within 10 mm of the
optic apparatus (optic nerves and chiasm) No history of intracranial hemorrhage or
spinal cord hemorrhage No ongoing requirement for dexamethasone for CNS disease;
patients on a stable dose of anticonvulsants are permitted.

No neurosurgical resection or brain biopsy ≤ 28 days prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Patients with asymptomatic treated CNS metastases may be enrolled, provided all the
criteria listed above are met as well as the following: Radiographic demonstration of
improvement upon the completion of CNS directed therapy and no evidence of interim
progression between the completion of CNS-directed therapy and the screening radiographic
study No stereotactic radiation or whole-brain radiation ≤ 28 days prior to Cycle 1, Day 1
Screening CNS radiographic study ≥ 4 weeks from completion of radiotherapy and ≥ 2 weeks
from discontinuation of corticosteroids

- Pregnancy, lactation, or breastfeeding

- Known hypersensitivity to Chinese hamster ovary cell products or other recombinant
human antibodies

- Known hypersensitivity to an component of bevacizumab

- Allergy to benzamide or inactive components of entinostat

- Inability to comply with study and follow-up procedures

- Known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation
with the requirements of the study.

- Uncontrolled hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg and/or
diastolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg)

- Prior history of hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy

- Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

- History or risk of autoimmune disease, including but not limited to systemic lupus
erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vascular thrombosis
associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Sjögren's
syndrome, Bell's palsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune
thyroid disease, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis

- Patients with a history of autoimmune hypothyroidism on a stable dose of thyroid
replacement hormone may be eligible.

- Patients with eczema, psoriasis, lichen simplex chronicus of vitiligo with
dermatologic manifestations only (e.g., patients with psoriatic arthritis would
be excluded) are permitted provided that they meet the following conditions:

Rash must cover less than 10% of body surface area (BSA) Disease is well controlled at
baseline and only requiring low potency topical steroids (e.g., hydrocortisone 2.5%,
hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1%, flucinolone 0.01%, desonide 0.05%, aclometasone dipropionate
0.05%) No acute exacerbations of underlying condition within the last 12 months (not
requiring psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation [PUVA], methotrexate, retinoids, biologic
agents, oral calcineurin inhibitors; high potency or oral steroids)

- History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonitis (including drug induced),
organizing pneumonia (i.e., bronchiolitis obliterans, cryptogenic organizing
pneumonia, etc.), or evidence of active pneumonitis on screening chest computed
tomography (CT) scan

- History of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted.

- Any other diseases, metabolic dysfunction, physical examination finding, or clinical
laboratory finding giving reasonable suspicion of a disease or condition that
contraindicates the use of an investigational drug or that may affect the
interpretation of the results or render the patient at high risk from treatment

- History of HIV infection (HIV 1/2 antibodies) or active hepatitis B (chronic or acute)
or hepatitis C infection

- Patients with past or resolved hepatitis B infection (defined as having a
negative hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] test and a positive anti-HBc
[antibody to hepatitis B core antigen] antibody test) are eligible. HBV DNA test
must be performed in these patients prior to study treatment.

- Patients positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody are eligible only if
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is negative for HCV RNA.

- Active tuberculosis

- Clinically significant (i.e. active) cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial
infarction or arterial thromboembolic events ≤ 6 months prior to screening or severe
or unstable angina, New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV disease, Grade
II or greater congestive heart failure, or serious cardiac arrhythmia (see Appendix
5), or a QTc interval > 470 msec.)

- Significant vascular disease (e.g., aortic aneurysm, requiring surgical repair or
recent peripheral arterial thrombosis ≤ 6 months of study enrollment

- Any previous venous thromboembolism > NCI CTCAE Grade 3

- History of hemoptysis (≥ ½ teaspoon of bright red blood per episode) ≤ 28 days of
study enrollment

- Evidence of bleeding diathesis or significant coagulopathy (in the absence of
therapeutic anticoagulation)

- Current or recent (≤ 10 days of study enrollment) use of aspirin (> 325 mg/day),
clopidogrel (>75 mg/day), or therapeutic oral or parenteral anticoagulants or
thrombolytic agents for therapeutic purposes The use of full-dose oral or parenteral
anticoagulants is permitted as long as the INR or aPTT is within therapeutic limits
(according to medical standard of the institution) and the patient has been on a
stable dose of anticoagulants for at least 2 week at the time of study enrollment.
Prophylactic use of anticoagulants is allowed.

- Severe infections ≤ 4 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1, including but not limited to
hospitalization for complications of infection, bacteremia, or severe pneumonia

- Signs or symptoms of infection ≤ 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Received oral or IV antibiotics ≤ 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics (e.g., for prevention of a urinary tract
infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are eligible.

- Major surgical procedure ≤ 28 days prior to Cycle 1, Day 1 or anticipation of need for
a major surgical procedure during the course of the study

- Administration of a live, attenuated vaccine ≤ 4 weeks before Cycle 1, Day 1 or
anticipation that such a live, attenuated vaccine will be required during the study

- Influenza vaccination should be given during influenza season only (approximately
October to March). Patients must not receive live, attenuated influenza vaccine (e.g.,
FluMist) ≤ 4 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1 or at any time during the study.

- History of abdominal fistula or gastrointestinal perforation ≤ 6 months before Cycle
1, Day 1. Serious non-healing wound, active ulcer, or untreated bone fracture
(adjuvant trials: bone fractures must be healed)

- Proteinuria as demonstrated by a UPC ratio ≥ 1.0 at screening

- Malignancies other than the disease under study ≤ 5 years prior to Cycle 1, Day 1,
with the exception of those with a negligible risk of metastasis or death and with
expected curative outcome (such as adequately treated carcinoma in situ of the cervix,
basal or squamous cell skin cancer, localized prostate cancer treated surgically with
curative intent, or ductal carcinoma in situ treated surgically with curative intent)
or undergoing active surveillance per standard-of-care management (e.g., chronic
lymphocytic leukemia Rai Stage 0, prostate cancer with Gleason score ≤ 6, and
prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤ 10 mg/mL, etc.)

Medication-Related Exclusion Criteria:

- Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including but not limited to
interferon or interleukin) ≤ 6 weeks or five half-lives of the drug (whichever is
shorter) prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Treatment with investigational agent ≤ 4 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1 (or within five
half lives of the investigational product, whichever is longer)

- Treatment with systemic immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to
prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and anti-tumor
necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents) ≤ 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1

- Patients who have received acute, low dose, systemic immunosuppressant
medications (e.g., a one-time dose of dexamethasone for nausea) may be enrolled.

- The use of inhaled corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids (e.g., fludrocortisone)
for patients with orthostatic hypotension or adrenocortical insufficiency is

- History of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to
chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins

- Patients with prior allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or prior solid organ
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